In the past few years, the Wireless sensor networks (WSN) has gained the attention of the research community. These interests are due to the new applications introduced by the large-scale networks. Most of these applications have low bandwidths and with limited capabilities.
Nowadays, the wireless sensor networks has tremendous interest in research of diverse application fields such as structural health monitoring, environmental monitoring, and military and security surveillance. A wireless senor network has sensor nodes that are equipped with different kinds of sensors, over a geographical region. The application on a large scale are focused towards harvesting information from the physical environment, performing a simple processing on the extracted data and transmitting it to remote locations.
The idea of enabling the network to learn the trend and its behavior in the environment is the new direction the wireless sensor networks are moving towards. There is something called as wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) which are network of wireless embedded devices that allows video or audio streams.
Wireless Sensor Networks deals with scalar data like temperature, humidity, and light which suits low rate and low power. There are some unique properties of multimedia data that has fresh challenges for resource constrained sensor networks. Transmission of raw data is costly and prevents limited processing powers from sophisticated multimedia processing at the sensor nodes. Wireless sensor networks are an attractive choice for lower cost for transmitting data. They emerged as a new sensor based intelligence system.
Research has proved that the wireless sensor networks in collaboration with the image sensors open the path of previously unthinkable sensing applications. In future we are designing and implementing a sensor node with a camera that are capable of acquiring still images, transfer the data onto a personal computer through wireless communication, and store the image on a personal computer.
4G refers to the “Fourth Generation” and it is the latest in the communication technology. Still 3G is trending and it has enabled the broadband internet on large scales in most of the smart phones used today with all such facilities like surfing, checking emails, watch videos and so on. There comes 4G which has promised with a number of significant benefits and technology far higher than the 3G. It’s been in development for a few years from now and it is finally ready to carve its launch on a large scale.
The main advantage of 4G technology is the much faster data transmission rates. The 4G speeds are expected to be ten times greater than the 3G, with “ultra-broadband” facility. With a much higher transfer rates the users of mobile phones will have consequences. Some activities with heavy data consumption such as streaming video or music will load at much faster rates with less buffering time. It enables high resolution and high quality video and audio within acceptable load times.
It has a massive implication of digital interactions. The video calling from phones and tablets are much more viable on the move due to the increased bandwidth, without the necessity of the Wi-Fi range.
Network Coverage of 4G:
For using 4G, users have to be within the 4G coverage area. The developed country like United States and United Kingdom receives fairly wide coverage. Whereas other developed countries are predicting 66% by mid-2013. Generally, major metropolitan cities in USA and Europe are waiting for the arrival of 4G services. Smaller towns and some rural areas may have to wait for a longer time.
A WiFi repeater or extender is used to extend the coverage area of your WiFi network. It works by receiving your existing WiFi signal, amplifying it and then transmitting the boosted signal. With a WiFi repeater you can effectively double the coverage area of your WiFi network – reaching far corners of your home or office, different floors, or even extend coverage to your yard.
WiFi boosters, repeaters, and extenders are mostly the same thing – basically the devices to improve WiFi coverage. There isn’t a clearly defined difference between devices that manufacturers describe as “repeaters” and devices described as “extenders”. However, not all WiFi extenders work in the exact same way. There are several different kinds of devices available and below we aim to explain what those differences are and how they work, so that you can choose the best WiFi repeater for your circumstances.
One of the best options for a new router is the Archer C9 AC1900 Router from TP-LINK which offers 802.11ac, the next generation of WiFi. It’s a dual band router with ultrafast dual core processors and four gigabit ethernet ports for use with Smart TVs or game consoles. It comes with unique Beam forming technology. This technology allows the routers to concentrate the WiFi signal towards your WiFi devices. By targeting the WiFi signal to where it’s being used, the speed and performance of your network is greatly increased.
WiFi Repeater effectively contains two wireless routers, similar to the wireless router you already have in your home or office. One of these wireless routers picks up the existing WiFi network. It then transfers the signal to the other wireless router, which transmits the boosted signal.
WiFi Repeaters are very easy to install. All you have to do is place the repeater in a location that can receive your existing WiFi network, and then attach the power supply. You can then log into the WiFi repeater via your computer, and input the login details and password of your existing WiFi network, to allow the WiFi repeater to connect and extend.
A major advantage of this repeater being it creates a second network. If your first network is not available, your device will connect to the second. But in some parts of your house, your device will be able to detect both networks at the same time. This means that if you wish to change from the original network to the boosted network you will have to disconnect and then reconnect.
All WiFi repeaters have some speed loss, but some are much worse than others. WiFi repeaters work by receiving wireless signal and rebroadcasting it, but single band repeaters have to receive, then retransmit each packet of data using the same radio on the same channel. This can cost single band repeaters 50% of their bandwidth.
One final feature that helps reduce speed loss is dual radios. If the device has dual radios, it can speak to the main router on lower channels, and then rebroadcast on higher channels. The Hawking Smart Wifi Repeater Pro (HAW2R1) uses two Wi-Fi radios. One Wi-Fi radio receives the signal and the other radio rebroadcasts the boosted signal. This clever design allows the boosted signal to utilize a different WiFi channel, which greatly increases performance compared to single radio repeaters. The Smart Repeater Pro also has a very powerful high gain antenna that can pick up even very weak WiFi signals, and it rebroadcasts that signal on two powerful 3dBi omni-directional antennas.
An amazing and fantastic solution to relentless wifi addiction is finally been discovered. You can buy a wifi range extender for your laptop, like the TP-Link N300 Wifi Antenna. This ingenious little piece of computer equipment like really rocks. It increases the laptop’s WiFi signal strength 3 to 5 times. With this anyone will be able to locate many more open wireless networks than with computer’s internal wireless card. A folding directional antenna helps pick up the best signal and maximizes my chances for connecting to the internet in remote locations.
There are 2 primary situations when having a wifi antenna helps greatly. The first is when an individual staying at a hotel, guesthouse, or hostel and the wifi signal doesn’t reach my room.
Maybe there’s only one router, and it’s in a public area. Connecting the external wifi antenna allows only to work from the comfort of the room with a powerful signal. The range seems to be a few hundred yards depending on how many walls/buildings are in between.
The other situation is when one finds the perfect cafe to work at (ambience, coffee, prices, food, comfort), but their wifi connection sucks. However maybe there is a cafe down the street with a much better connection. Using my wifi antenna, one can connect to the 2nd cafe’s fast wifi, while working from the cafe he/she actually prefers.
It may not seem like much, but finding a decent workspace with good wifi is very important for my productivity when working on the road.
WiFi Antenna Booster
The extended range of this external wifi card has saved my ass on quite a few occasions while traveling. Because the boosted wifi signal is so much stronger, I’m frequently using it even when my internal card sees some of the same connections.
A 20% network signal suddenly becomes a 99% signal after hooking up my TP-Link wifi antenna.
Wi-Fi is a technology for WLAN based on the IEEE 802.11 (a,b,g) specifications. Wireless fidelity is a popular technology that exchanges data’s through wireless networks with access point. An access point is similar to a network HUB transmitting data’s between connected wireless devices and a connected wired device, like an Ethernet hub or switch. The distance covered by of one or more inter-connected access point (hotspots) can extend from an area of few meters to as large as many kilometers. Coverage in the larger area may require a group of access points with overlapping coverage. An access point (AP) broadcasts its SSID (Service Set Identifier, “Network name”) through packets broadcasted every 100 ms at 1 Mbit/s.
The wireless network is formed by connecting all wireless clients to the access point (AP). Access points are important for providing heightened wireless security and for extending the physical range of service a wireless user can access by using WEP and WAP. The range of the WI-FI can be increased by re positioning the router or access point (AP) to avoid obstructions and radio interference. The range can also be increased by adding another access point (or router).Ad hoc does not use any intermediary device such as Access Point. Infra Structure and Extended modes use Access Point as interface between wireless clients. WI-FI signal boosters are WI-FI amplifiers that are attached to access point or routers. This booster boosts the signal strength to 600%. The need for reliability, uninterrupted and seamless communication is one of the top priorities of every house. Repeaters should be used for better performance and high resolution. Repeaters are the networking devices that help to repeat the signal or increase the reach of existing wireless network; this can be used in remote place where signal strength is too low and unreachable.
DEMERITS OF EXISTING SYSTEM
In the existing system, Omni-directional antennas can be used in access point to access internet. Omni directional antenna can be accessible in all directions of 360 degrees. It is as well called the “non-directional” antenna because it does not favour any particular direction. Omni directional antenna provides access range up to 100-300 feet indoor and 500 feet outdoor. Antennas are electrical conductors that radiate electromagnetic energy into space. By using Omni directional antenna coverage area become smaller as it can be accessible in all directions.
The Network Extender enhances indoor calling and 3G data coverage to provide better service for your Verizon Wireless mobile device. It’s an extension of our network placed directly in your house or small business office. The Network Extender is compatible with all Verizon Wireless devices and works like a miniature tower. It plugs into your existing high-speed Internet connection to communicate with the Verizon Wireless network, which makes it easy to install. One point to be noted most importantly is that the Network Extender is not a router and therefore is not Wi-Fi capable.
Your Network Extender will work with most broadband or DSL connections (from Verizon or another Internet service provider). The minimum broadband speed required varies based on which Network Extender you have:
1 Mbps to support voice
Up to 3.1 Mbps to support the maximum EVDO data rate for the Combo Network Extender (SCS-2U01)
The Network Extender requires a broadband Internet connection, but it doesn’t require a computer to provide wireless coverage. However, you do need a computer (or other Internet device) to manage your device access settings through My Verizon.
If you have a computer, it doesn’t need to be turned on to use your Network Extender as the Network Extender is designed to work with Verizon Wireless Mobile devices only.
While both the Network Extender and the Network Extender for Business provide the same enhanced functionality for calls and data on your mobile devices, the Network Extender for Business is made to handle the broader needs of numerous employees remaining connected to the network at the same time.
The Network Extender is designed to enhance the wireless coverage within a residential home or certain small business environments.
The Network Extender for Business is intended to support the specific calling and data needs of a business environment. By linking up to 5 units together, a business can give uninterrupted access to an ever growing number of devices at any given time.
Placing the Network Extender close to a window will help in acquiring a GPS signal. If our Network Extender can’t be placed near a window or has trouble acquiring a GPS signal. Using the external GPS cable also lets us place the Network Extender in a central location within your home, so you can get better coverage throughout our house.
The external GPS antenna cable is provided in the event that you can’t acquire a GPS signal with the internal GPS antenna. Using the external GPS cable also lets you place the Network Extender in a central location in your home or small business so you can get better coverage throughout it.
The radiation from cell phones is so scary that can enter all the way into their midbrain, where tumours are more deadly. Sadly, children and teens are at greatest risk—both for parotid gland tumours and brain tumours—as their thinner skull bones allow for greater penetration of cell phone radiation. In addition, children’s cells reproduce more quickly, so they’re more susceptible to aggressive cell growth. Children also face a far greater lifetime exposure. According to experts, those who begin using cell phones heavily as teenagers have 4 to 5 times more brain cancer as young adults!
Pregnant women would also be wise to avoid cell phones as much as possible. In 2008, researchers analyzed data from nearly 13,000 children and found that exposure to cell phones while in the womb, and also during childhood, were linked to behavioral difficulties. Using handsets just two or three times a day during pregnancy was enough to raise the risk of their babies developing hyperactivity and difficulties with conduct, emotions, and relationships by the time they reached school age—and the risk became even greater if the children also used the phones themselves before the age of seven.
Overall, the study revealed that mothers who used mobile phones were 54 percent more likely to have children with behavioral problems. Later on, when the children began using cell phones themselves, they were:
80 percent more likely to suffer from behavioral difficulties
25 percent more at risk from emotional problems
34 percent more likely to suffer from difficulties relating to their peers
35 percent more likely to be hyperactive
49 percent more prone to problems with conduct
It’s important to realize and note that as long as your cell phone is on, it emits radiation intermittently, even when you are not actually making a call. So wearing a cell phone on your hip for 15 hours a day is giving that area of your body nearly continuous radiation exposure.
Previous studies have found that cell phone radiation can affect men’s sperm count, and the quality and motility of their sperm, and this may be a far greater issue than its effect on bone density.
Men in particular may want to reconsider carrying their cell phones on their belts or in their pocket, in close proximity of their reproductive organs. In addition, you have a number of other sensitive organs in that general area, including liver, kidneys, colon and bladder—all of which are susceptible to radiation.
Here is the most awaited answer to this frequently asked question. WeBoost, formerly Wilson Electronics, announced the release of the new WeBoost 473120 eqo cell phone signal booster, which is the first plug and play signal booster that does not require an external antenna.
The system is designed in such a way that it takes less than a minute to be set up and automatically starts boosting signal up to 1200 sq ft inside of the home or office, for up to 32x better signal. The eqo will boost all networks from all carriers (except Spring 4G LTE), so you’ll have much better voice calls and exponentially faster data speeds.
The eqo is made up of two units, one unit to sit in the window and receive the cell signal from the outside, and one unit to sit inside of the home or office and broadcast the boosted signal to the inside area. These units are connected by a thin, flexible cable to pass the signal between the two.
The WeBoost eqo adjusts automatically to the outside signal strength to create the best possible coverage inside, and thus automatically reacts to changes to the existing outside signal, by either increasing or decreasing the boosting power accordingly, so it is truly a plug and play device.
Unlike past booster systems which have had a more industrial look and feel, the WeBoost eqo signal booster has been designed from the ground up for a sleek, modern aesthetic that one would not be embarrassed to have it at home.
As always, the size of the total area of boosted signal inside is determined by the existing outside signal strength, so the stronger the initial signal in the window where you plan to locate the window unit, the larger the area of boosted signal inside. If you’d like to use an external antenna with the WeBoost eqo, there is an external antenna port, which if used, will disable the external antenna built into the window unit.
Whether it is the latest iPhone 6S or an older model like an iPhone 5 or 4, it is still possible to improve your signal in a home or workplace.
It’s inconceivably irritating to have a great smartphone like an iPhone 6S but not be able to get the most out of it because of poor coverage.
The biggest factor in iPhone signal however is often not the tower itself, but the building you are in. The cause of your bad cell signal is far more likely to be due to the construction materials used in your home or office. Cellular signals have a hard time passing through metal and concrete within the walls of your home. Many buildings also use a wire mesh in their construction that can create a Faraday cage effect. This mesh blocks external static electricity fields, meaning that cell phone signals cannot get through. If you can get iPhone signal outside your building, on the roof, or from an upstairs window, but not indoors, then the problem is likely to be building materials interfering with your signal – and a cellular repeater could fix the problem.
In this case, installing a consumer FCC-licensed signal booster can greatly improve your coverage. Signal boosters are “bi-directional amplifiers” – that means they amplify the signal being sent to and from your nearest cellphone tower.
A signal booster is a hardware device that you can install in your home, office or vehicle. Booster kits typically contain two antennas: one that communicates with the cellphone tower, and another that communicates with your phone. The outside antenna receives an outside signal and transmits it to an amplifier. The amplifier boosts the signal and rebroadcasts it inside via the inside antenna, eliminating dead coverage zones. Booster kits include antennas, amplifier and cables to connect the system.
Most cellular signal boosters on the market today support 4G LTE frequencies. The iPhone 5 was the first device to support LTE signals, so if you have a device such as an iPhone 4 or iPhone 4S, you don’t need an LTE-compatible booster.
Huaptec vehicle C35W-ED dual system provides a reliable and genuine two-way cellular coverage by enhancing signal strength in any kind of vehicles where cellular reception is weak or unreliable.
The system amplifies the signal from the nearest cellular tower and retransmits it at a higher power level to the vehicle area. This manual provides a very simple installation instructions that will make the cellular booster kit set in record time.
• Vehicle cell phone booster C35W-ED dual system 50 dB
• 5 dB magnetic antenna mounted on the roof of a vehicle
• Patch antenna used for interior of vehicle
• DC power adapter with 6 cable.
The kit parts should be installed at one and the same time before being connected to each
other. There are 4 steps namely outdoor antenna, booster, indoor antenna, and power supply.
Thus forth, you will need to connect the outsider/inside antenna and the power adapter to the booster.
The vehicle booster should be hidden in the corner of the car, near the power supply.
The booster is a full-duplex amplifier and it improves the signal both inside and the vehicle outside.
Mount magnetic antenna. Its recommended location is about 20cm/8inch from the rear of the car.
The function of outside antenna is to receive the signal from the base station and transmit it through the feeder to booster. Being bi-directional it also transmits the signal back to the base station from the booster.
Small Patch Antenna which has 2dBi gain is adopted. The proposed location is at 3/4 height of the glass which is shown in the installation graph. If your vehicle is larger, it’s recommended to install it in the place where signal is weak.
The function of the inside antenna is to transmit amplified signals to mobile phone and also back to the booster.
Plug the system into 12V power supply, the vehicle charger can also work; the booster can be fed directly by the vehicle’s power.
There are three major reasons why people are concerned that cell phones (also known as “mobile” or “wireless” telephones) might have the potential to cause certain types of cancer or other health problems:
- Cell phones emit radiofrequency energy (radio waves), a form of non-ionizing radiation, from their antennas. Tissues nearest to the antenna can absorb this energy.
- The number of cell phone users has increased rapidly. As of December 2014, there were more than 327.5 million cell phone subscribers in the United States, according to the Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association. This is a nearly threefold increase from the 110 million users in 2000. Globally, the number of subscriptions is estimated by the International Telecommunications Union to be 5 billion.
- Over time, the number of cell phone calls per day, the length of each call, and the amount of time people use cell phones have increased. However, improvements in cell phone technology have only resulted in devices that have lower power outputs than earlier models.
There are certain theoretical considerations as to why the possible risk should be investigated separately in children. The reason goes this way, as their nervous systems are still developing and, therefore, more vulnerable to factors that may cause cancer. Their heads are smaller than those of adults and consequently have a greater proportional exposure to the field of radiofrequency radiation that is emitted by cell phones. And, children have the potential of accumulating more years of cell phone exposure than adults do.
Since the devices these days have a lower power supply, these gadgets get heated up early and thus this would add to the cause of increasing the risk of cancer. In order to avoid this, one can opt for WeBoost signal boosters.
- The WeBoost 470102 Drive 3G-M Mobile Signal Booster Kit is the newest version of the popular Wilson 460102 Mobile 3G Signal Booster Kit. The Drive 3G-M boosts the 2G & 3G networks from all major carriers in the United States and Canada, giving you fewer dropped calls, increased call clarity and reliable 3G downloads. Unlike less powerful signal boosters, the Drive 3G-M communicates with your phone wirelessly and does not require any direct cable connection or for your phone to sit in a cradle. Also, because it is wireless, the Drive 3G-M also supports multiple phones and data devices at the same time.
- The WeBoost 470102 Drive 3G-M’s inside coverage area will depend on your existing outside signal strength. In areas where you get a moderate existing outside signal, the Drive 3G-M will fill a normal vehicle with boosted coverage. As the outside signal gets weaker, you may have to keep your phone within about 18 inches of the inside antenna in order to take advantage of the boosted signal.
- For added durability, the Drive 3G-M amplifier is housed in an aluminium case, which gives it added protection while located under a seat, in the trunk, or in another location within the vehicle.